Kubernetes Operators with Ansible Deep Dive: Part 2

August 1, 2019 by James Cammarata

blog_ansible-and-kubernetes-deep-dive-2

In part 1 of this series, we looked at operators overall, and what they do in OpenShift/Kubernetes. We peeked at the Operator SDK, and why you'd want to use an Ansible Operator rather than other kinds of operators provided by the SDK. We also explored how Ansible Operators are structured and the relevant files created by the Operator SDK when building Kubernetes Operators with Ansible.

In this the second part of this deep dive series, we'll:

  1. Take a look at creating an OpenShift Project and deploying a Galera Operator
  2. Next we’ll check the MySQL cluster, then setup and test a Galera cluster
  3. Then we’ll test scaling down, disaster recovery, and demonstrate cleaning up

Creating the project and deploying the operator

We start by creating a new project in OpenShift, which we'll simply call test:

$ oc new-project test --display-name="Testing Ansible Operator"
Now using project "test" on server "https://ec2-xx-yy-zz-1.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com:8443".

We won't delve too much into this role, however the basic operation is:

  1. Use set_fact to generate variables using the k8s lookup plugin or other variables defined in defaults/main.yml.
  2. Determine if any corrective action needs to be taken based on the above variables. For example, one variable determines how many Galera node pods are currently running. This is compared against the variable defined on the CustomResource. If they differ, the role will add or remove pods as needed.

To begin the deployment, we have a simple script, which builds the operator image and pushes it to the OpenShift registry for the test project:

$ cat ./create_operator.sh 
#!/bin/bash

docker build -t docker-registry-default.router.default.svc.cluster.local/test/galera-ansible-operator:latest . docker push docker-registry-default.router.default.svc.cluster.local/test/galera-ansible-operator:latest kubectl create -f deploy/operator.yaml kubectl create -f deploy/cr.yaml

Before we run this script, we need to first deploy the RBAC rules and custom resource definition for our Galera example:

$ oc create -f deploy/rbac.yaml 
clusterrole "galera-ansible-operator" created
clusterrolebinding "default-account-app-operator" created
$ oc create -f deploy/crd.yaml
customresourcedefinition "galeraservices.galera.database.coreos.com" created

Now, we run the script (after using the login command to allow docker to connect to the OpenShift registry we created):

$ docker login -p $(oc whoami -t) -u unused docker-registry-default.router.default.svc.cluster.local
Login Succeeded

$ ./create_operator.sh
Sending build context to Docker daemon 490 kB
...
deployment.apps/galera-ansible-operator created
galeraservice "galera-example" created

In short order, we will see the galera-ansible-operator pod start up, followed by a single pod named galera-node-0001 and a LoadBalancer service which provides our ingress to our Galera cluster:

$ oc get all
NAME DOCKER REPO TAGS UPDATED
is/galera-ansible-operator docker-registry-default.router...:5000/test/galera-ansible-operator latest 3 hours ago

NAME DESIRED CURRENT UP-TO-DATE AVAILABLE AGE
deploy/galera-ansible-operator 1 1 1 1 4m

NAME CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE
svc/galera-external-loadbalancer 172.30.251.195 172.29.17.210,172.29.17.210 33066:30072/TCP 1m
svc/glusterfs-dynamic-galera-node-0001-mysql-data 172.30.49.250 <none> 1/TCP 1m

NAME DESIRED CURRENT READY AGE
rs/galera-ansible-operator-bc6cd548 1 1 1 4m

NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
po/galera-ansible-operator-bc6cd548-46b2r 1/1 Running 5 4m
po/galera-node-0001 1/1 Running 0 1m

Verifying the MySQL cluster, initial setup and testing

We can use the describe function to see the status of our custom resource, specifically the size we specified:

$ kubectl describe -f deploy/cr.yaml |grep -i size
Galera _ Cluster _ Size: 1

Now that we have a MySQL cluster, let's test it using sysbench. As mentioned above, we have a system from which to do the testing so we can avoid internet round trips. But first, we'll need some info. We need to know the forwarded port we can connect to through the load balancing service created as part of the operator deployment:

$ oc get services

Next, we need to know the IP of the master. We can get this with oc describe:

$ oc describe node ec2-xx-yy-zz-1.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com| grep ^Addresses
Addresses: 10.0.0.46,ec2-xx-yy-zz-1.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com

So for this test, we'll be connecting to the IP 10.0.0.46 on port XXXXX. The port value 33066 was specified in the spec above, and is the port which will receive the forwarded traffic. We'll export those to make it a little easier to re-use our test commands.

From the test server:

$ export MYSQL_IP=10.0.0.46
$ export MYSQL_PORT=XXXXX

Before running sysbench, we need to create the database it expects (future versions of the Galera operator will be able to do this automatically):

$ mysql -h $MYSQL_IP --port=$MYSQL_PORT -u root -e 'create database sbtest;'

Next, we'll prepare the test by running sysbench using the OLTP read-only test with a table of 1 million rows:

$ sysbench --db-driver=mysql --threads=150 --mysql-host=${MYSQL_IP} --mysql-port=${MYSQL_PORT} --mysql-user=root --mysql-password= --mysql-ignore-errors=all --table-size=1000000 /usr/share/sysbench/oltp_read_only.lua prepare
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)
Initializing worker threads...
Creating table 'sbtest1'...
Inserting 1000000 records into 'sbtest1'
Creating a secondary index on 'sbtest1'

...

Note that we use 150 threads here, as a single MySQL/MariaDB instance defaults to this size for its maximum connections allowed.

So now that everything's ready, lets run our first test with sysbench:

$ sysbench --db-driver=mysql --threads=150 --mysql-host=${MYSQL_IP} --mysql-port=${MYSQL_PORT} --mysql-user=root --mysql-password= --mysql-ignore-errors=all /usr/share/sysbench/oltp_read_only.lua run
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)
Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 150
Initializing random number generator from current time
Initializing worker threads...
Threads started!
SQL statistics:
queries performed:
read: 174776
write: 0
other: 24968
total: 199744
transactions: 12484 (1239.55 per sec.)
queries: 199744 (19832.77 per sec.)
ignored errors: 0 (0.00 per sec.)
reconnects: 0 (0.00 per sec.)
General statistics:
total time: 10.0700s
total number of events: 12484
Latency (ms):
min: 3.82
avg: 120.66
max: 1028.51
95th percentile: 292.60
sum: 1506263.71
Threads fairness:
events (avg/stddev): 83.2267/42.84
execution time (avg/stddev): 10.0418/0.02

This was just one run, but re-running a few times produces similar results. So our one-node cluster can process about 20K queries/second. But a cluster with only one member isn't very useful - so lets scale it up. We do this by editing the custom resource we defined earlier and changing the galera_cluster_size variable. For now, we'll spin up to a three-node cluster:

$ oc edit -f deploy/cr.yaml 
galeraservice.galera.database.coreos.com/galera-example edited

Next, we can verify OpenShift sees this new value:

$ kubectl describe -f deploy/cr.yaml | grep -i size
Galera _ Cluster _ Size: 3

And in short order, we see the Ansible operator receive an event signalling the change and start working to update the cluster:

$ oc get pods
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
galera-ansible-operator-bc6cd548-46b2r 1/1 Running 5 30m
galera-node-0001 1/1 Running 0 26m
galera-node-0002 0/1 Running 0 1m
galera-node-0003 0/1 Running 0 56s

And after about a minute (each Galera node has to start and sync data from another member), we see the new pods become ready:

$ oc get pods
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
galera-ansible-operator-bc6cd548-46b2r 1/1 Running 5 31m
galera-node-0001 1/1 Running 0 27m
galera-node-0002 1/1 Running 0 2m
galera-node-0003 1/1 Running 0 2m

Now that we have a three node cluster, we can re-run the same test as earlier:

$ sysbench --db-driver=mysql --threads=150 --mysql-host=${MYSQL_IP} --mysql-port=${MYSQL_PORT} --mysql-user=root --mysql-password= --mysql-ignore-errors=all /usr/share/sysbench/oltp_read_only.lua run
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)
Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 150
Initializing random number generator from current time
Initializing worker threads...
Threads started!
SQL statistics:
queries performed:
read: 527282
write: 0
other: 75326
total: 602608
transactions: 37663 (3756.49 per sec.)
queries: 602608 (60103.86 per sec.)
ignored errors: 0 (0.00 per sec.)
reconnects: 0 (0.00 per sec.)
General statistics:
total time: 10.0247s
total number of events: 37663
Latency (ms):
min: 4.30
avg: 39.88
max: 8371.55
95th percentile: 82.96
sum: 1501845.63
Threads fairness:
events (avg/stddev): 251.0867/87.82
execution time (avg/stddev): 10.0123/0.01

With dramatic results! Our cluster is now able to process 60K queries per second! How far can we take this? Well, if you noticed our node count at the start we have five nodes in our k8s cluster, so lets make our Galera cluster match that:

$ oc edit -f deploy/cr.yaml 
galeraservice.galera.database.coreos.com/galera-example edited
$ kubectl describe -f deploy/cr.yaml | grep -i size
Galera _ Cluster _ Size: 5

The Ansible operator starts growing the Galera cluster...:

$ oc get pods
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
galera-ansible-operator-bc6cd548-46b2r 1/1 Running 5 35m
galera-node-0001 1/1 Running 0 32m
galera-node-0002 1/1 Running 0 7m
galera-node-0003 1/1 Running 0 7m
galera-node-0004 0/1 Running 0 38s
galera-node-0005 0/1 Running 0 34s

And again after about a minute or so we have a Galera cluster with five pods ready to serve queries:

$ oc get pods
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
galera-ansible-operator-bc6cd548-46b2r 1/1 Running 5 36m
galera-node-0001 1/1 Running 0 33m
galera-node-0002 1/1 Running 0 8m
galera-node-0003 1/1 Running 0 8m
galera-node-0004 1/1 Running 0 1m
galera-node-0005 1/1 Running 1 1m

Oddly, the fifth node had a problem, but OpenShift retried it after it failed and it came up and into the cluster. Great!

So let's rerun our same test once again:

$ sysbench --db-driver=mysql --threads=150 --mysql-host=${MYSQL_IP} --mysql-port=${MYSQL_PORT} --mysql-user=root --mysql-password= --mysql-ignore-errors=all /usr/share/sysbench/oltp_read_only.lua run
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)
Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 150
Initializing random number generator from current time
Initializing worker threads...
Threads started!
SQL statistics:
queries performed:
read: 869260
write: 0
other: 124180
total: 993440
transactions: 62090 (6196.82 per sec.)
queries: 993440 (99149.17 per sec.)
ignored errors: 0 (0.00 per sec.)
reconnects: 0 (0.00 per sec.)
General statistics:
total time: 10.0183s
total number of events: 62090
Latency (ms):
min: 5.41
avg: 24.18
max: 159.70
95th percentile: 46.63
sum: 1501042.93
Threads fairness:
events (avg/stddev): 413.9333/78.17
execution time (avg/stddev): 10.0070/0.00

And we're hitting 100K queries per second. Our cluster has thus-far scaled linearly with the number of nodes we've spun up. At this point, we've maxed out the resources of our OpenShift cluster, and spinning up more Galera nodes doesn't help:

$ oc edit -f deploy/cr.yaml 
galeraservice.galera.database.coreos.com/galera-example edited
$ kubectl describe -f deploy/cr.yaml | grep -i size
Galera _ Cluster _ Size: 9
$ oc get pods
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
galera-ansible-operator-bc6cd548-46b2r 1/1 Running 5 44m
galera-node-0001 1/1 Running 0 41m
galera-node-0002 1/1 Running 0 16m
galera-node-0003 1/1 Running 0 16m
galera-node-0004 1/1 Running 0 9m
galera-node-0005 1/1 Running 1 9m
galera-node-0006 1/1 Running 0 1m
galera-node-0007 1/1 Running 0 1m
galera-node-0008 1/1 Running 0 1m
galera-node-0009 1/1 Running 0 1m
$ sysbench --db-driver=mysql --threads=150 --mysql-host=${MYSQL_IP} --mysql-port=${MYSQL_PORT} --mysql-user=root --mysql-password= --mysql-ignore-errors=all /usr/share/sysbench/oltp_read_only.lua run
sysbench 1.0.9 (using system LuaJIT 2.0.4)
Running the test with following options:
Number of threads: 150
Initializing random number generator from current time
Initializing worker threads...
Threads started!
SQL statistics:
queries performed:
read: 841260
write: 0
other: 120180
total: 961440
transactions: 60090 (5995.71 per sec.)
queries: 961440 (95931.35 per sec.)
ignored errors: 0 (0.00 per sec.)
reconnects: 0 (0.00 per sec.)
General statistics:
total time: 10.0208s
total number of events: 60090
Latency (ms):
min: 5.24
avg: 24.98
max: 192.46
95th percentile: 57.87
sum: 1501266.08
Threads fairness:
events (avg/stddev): 400.6000/134.04
execution time (avg/stddev): 10.0084/0.01

Performance actually decreased a bit! This shows that MySQL/MariaDB are pretty resource-intensive, so if you want to continue scaling out the performance you may need to add more OpenShift cluster resources. But at this point, our cluster is serving nearly 5x the traffic as when we originally started it up. Continued tuning of MySQL/MariaDB and Galera could extend that and allow us to increase performance further. However the goal here was to show how to create an Ansible operator to control a very complex, data-oriented application.

Scaling the cluster down

Since those extra nodes aren't helping out (other than providing a bit more redundancy in the event of a failure), lets scale the cluster back down to five nodes:

$ oc edit -f deploy/cr.yaml 
galeraservice.galera.database.coreos.com/galera-example edited
$ kubectl describe -f deploy/cr.yaml | grep -i size
Galera _ Cluster _ Size: 5

After a short while, we see the operator begin to terminate pods that are no longer required:

$ oc get pods
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
galera-ansible-operator-bc6cd548-46b2r 1/1 Running 5 46m
galera-node-0001 1/1 Running 0 43m
galera-node-0002 1/1 Running 0 18m
galera-node-0003 1/1 Running 0 18m
galera-node-0004 1/1 Running 0 11m
galera-node-0005 1/1 Running 1 11m
galera-node-0006 0/1 Terminating 0 3m
galera-node-0007 0/1 Terminating 0 3m
galera-node-0008 0/1 Terminating 0 3m
galera-node-0009 0/1 Terminating 0 3m

Disaster recovery

Now, let's add some chaos. Looking at our first worker (xx-yy-zz-2), we can see which pods are running on the node:

$ oc describe node ec2-xx-yy-zz-2.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com
...
Non-terminated Pods: (5 in total)
Namespace Name CPU Requests CPU Limits Memory Requests Memory Limits
--------- ---- ------------ ---------- --------------- -------------
openshift-monitoring node-exporter-bqnzv 10m (0%) 20m (1%) 20Mi (0%) 40Mi (0%)
openshift-node sync-hjtmj 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
openshift-sdn ovs-55hw4 100m (5%) 200m (10%) 300Mi (4%) 400Mi (5%)
openshift-sdn sdn-rd7kp 100m (5%) 0 (0%) 200Mi (2%) 0 (0%)
test galera-node-0004 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
...


So galera-node-0004 is running here, along with some other infrastructure bits. Lets restart it from the AWS EC2 console and see what happens...

$ oc get nodes
NAME STATUS AGE
ec2-xx-yy-zz-1.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com Ready 1d
ec2-xx-yy-zz-2.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com NotReady 1d
ec2-xx-yy-zz-3.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com Ready 1d
ec2-xx-yy-zz-4.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com Ready 1d
ec2-xx-yy-zz-5.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com Ready 1d
ec2-xx-yy-zz-6.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com Ready 1d
ec2-xx-yy-zz-7.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com Ready 1d
ec2-xx-yy-zz-8.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com Ready 1d

Eventually, we see galera-node-0004 enter an unknown state:

$ oc get pods
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
galera-ansible-operator-bc6cd548-46b2r 1/1 Running 5 50m
galera-node-0001 1/1 Running 0 47m
galera-node-0002 1/1 Running 0 22m
galera-node-0003 1/1 Running 0 22m
galera-node-0004 1/1 Unknown 0 16m
galera-node-0005 1/1 Running 1 16m

And in a while the pod will be terminated, after which the Ansible operator will restart it:

$ oc get pods
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
galera-ansible-operator-bc6cd548-46b2r 1/1 Running 5 55m
galera-node-0001 1/1 Running 0 52m
galera-node-0002 1/1 Running 0 27m
galera-node-0003 1/1 Running 0 27m
galera-node-0004 1/1 Running 1 1m
galera-node-0005 1/1 Running 1 21m

... and our cluster is back to its requested capacity!

Cleanup

Since this is a test we’ll want to clean up after ourselves. When we're done we use the delete_operator.sh script to remove the custom resource and the operator deployment:

$ ./delete_operator.sh
galeraservice.galera.database.coreos.com "galera-example" deleted
deployment.apps "galera-ansible-operator" deleted

In a couple of minutes, everything is gone:

$ oc get all
NAME DOCKER REPO TAGS UPDATED
is/galera-ansible-operator docker-registry-default.router...:5000/test/galera-ansible-operator latest 4 hours ago

Summary

The Galera operator is a work in progress and is most definitely not ready for production. If you'd like to view the playbooks themselves, you can see the code here:

https://github.com/water-hole/galera-ansible-operator

We're going to be continuing development on this with the goal of making it the de facto example for other data storage applications. Thanks for reading!

Learn More

For more information on Kubernetes Operators with Ansible please refer to the following resources:

AnsibleFest 2019

Want to learn more about Kubernetes Operators? Want to learn how Ansible can drive automation inside Kubernetes? Join us at AnsibleFest Atlanta 2019 from Sept 24-16, 2019. The Ansible Automation and OpenShift teams have worked together to bring more cloud native content to AnsibleFest than ever before! Get your tickets today!

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Topics:
Ansible Automation, Kubernetes Operators with Ansible


 

James Cammarata

James Cammarata is a Senior Principal Software Engineer, Ansible, Red Hat.


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